Carbon Capture Technologies

The carbon capture research area investigates the application of innovative CO2 capture technologies to the power and to the industry sectors (i.e., cement, steel, oil refinery). Most of the activities in the field focuses on the optimal integration within existing plants supported by specifically developed numerical models. Experimental activities related to the assessment of thermophysical properties of CO2 based mixtures are carried out at LEAP laboratory.

The GECOS group formulated the Specific Primary Energy Consumption per CO2 Avoided (SPECCA) coefficient which is widely adopted in the CCS sector to consistently compare different technologies.

Power sector

The power sector contributes for around 30% of the global CO2 emissions. Several technologies can contribute to mitigate the carbon intensity of the power sector. Innovative technologies are investigated to reduce the energy penalty as well as the additional costs related to the CO2 capture process. Examples of process investigated are:

Sorption Enhanced Water Gas Shift                                      Membrane separation

Calcium-looping                                                          High temperature fuel cells

Sorption Enhanced reforming                                             Mixed-Salt Technology

Chemical Looping Combustion                                     Low Temperature Sorbents

Industrial sector

Some industrial sectors are significant CO2 emitters which can contribute to some percent of the global CO2 emissions. Innovative process design integrating CO2 capture technologies are investigated to minimise the impact on the final product costs. Industrial sectors currently investigated are:


Integrated steel mills

Oil refineries and Steam Methane Reformers

Waste-to-Energy plants

Pulp and paper plants


Process optimisation

A strategy for reducing the CO2 emissions is the separation of CO2 from energy intensive processes and utilise it for chemical production. This concept relies on the wide diffusion of renewable non-dispatchable electricity generation which can be converted in hydrogen at limited costs. The hydrogen and CO2 reacts to produce chemicals as methanol. GECOS contributes to optimise the entire process from energetic and economic point of view.

CO2 purification and compression

CO2 compression is one of the most energy intensive steps in the separation process. The energy consumption depends also on the CO2 purity and amount/type of contaminants. At LEAP laboratory an experimental activity regarding two-phase equilibrium and thermodynamic properties of CO2 rich mixtures is carried out.

For further information on carbon capture technologies, contact Prof. Matteo Romano at

Recent publications

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De Lena, Edoardo ; Spinelli, Maurizio; Gatti, Manuele; Scaccabarozzi, Roberto; Campanari, Stefano; Consonni, Stefano; Cinti, Giovanni; Romano, Matteo C

Techno-economic analysis of calcium looping processes for low CO2 emission cement plants Journal Article

International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 82 , pp. 244–260, 2019.

Links | BibTeX

Gardarsdottir, Stefania Osk; De Lena, Edoardo ; Romano, Matteo; Roussanaly, Simon; Voldsund, Mari; Pérez-Calvo, José-Francisco; Berstad, David; Fu, Chao; Anantharaman, Rahul; Sutter, Daniel; Gazzani, Matteo; Mazzotti, Marco; Cinti, Giovanni

Comparison of Technologies for CO2 Capture from Cement Production—Part 2: Cost Analysis Journal Article

Energies, 12 (3), pp. 542, 2019, ISSN: 1996-1073.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Voldsund, Mari; Gardarsdottir, Stefania Osk; De Lena, Edoardo ; Pérez-Calvo, José-Francisco; Jamali, Armin; Berstad, David; Fu, Chao; Romano, Matteo C; Roussanaly, Simon; Anantharaman, Rahul; Hoppe, Helmut; Sutter, Daniel; Mazzotti, Marco; Gazzani, Matteo; Cinti, Giovanni; Jordal, Kristin

Comparison of Technologies for CO2 Capture from Cement Production—Part 1: Technical Evaluation Journal Article

Energies, 12 (3), pp. 559, 2019.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Martínez, I; Martini, M; Riva, L; Gallucci, F; Van Sint Annaland, M; Romano, M C

Techno-economic analysis of a natural gas combined cycle integrated with a Ca-Cu looping process for low CO2 emission power production Journal Article

International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 81 (July 2018), pp. 216–239, 2019, ISSN: 17505836.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX


Martínez, I; Fernández, J R; Abanades, J C; Romano, M C

Integration of a fluidised bed Ca–Cu chemical looping process in a steel mill Journal Article

Energy, 163 , pp. 570–584, 2018, ISSN: 03605442.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Spinelli, Maurizio; Martínez, Isabel; Romano, Matteo C

One-dimensional model of entrained-flow carbonator for CO2capture in cement kilns by Calcium looping process Journal Article

Chemical Engineering Science, 191 , pp. 100–114, 2018, ISSN: 00092509.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

De Lena, E; Spinelli, M; Romano, M C

CO2 capture in cement plants by “tail-End” Calcium Looping process Journal Article

Energy Procedia, 148 , pp. 186–193, 2018, ISSN: 18766102.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Spallina, Vincenzo; Nocerino, Pasquale; Romano, Matteo C; van Sint Annaland, Martin ; Campanari, Stefano; Gallucci, Fausto

Integration of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and chemical looping combustion (CLC) for ultra-high efficiency power generation and CO2 production Journal Article

International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 71 (January), pp. 9–19, 2018, ISSN: 17505836.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Lillia, S; Bonalumi, D; Grande, C; Manzolini, G

A comprehensive modeling of the hybrid temperature electric swing adsorption process for CO2 capture Journal Article

International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 74 , pp. 155–173, 2018.

Links | BibTeX

Van Dijk, H A J; Cobden, P D; Lukashuk, L; Van De Water, L; Lundqvist, M; Manzolini, G; Cormos, C -C; Van Dijk, C; Mancuso, L; Johns, J; Bellqvist, D

Stepwise project: Sorption-enhanced water-gas shift technology to reduce carbon footprint in the iron and steel industry Journal Article

Johnson Matthey Technology Review, 62 (4), pp. 395–402, 2018.

Links | BibTeX

141 entries « 1 of 15 »